Thursday, April 30, 2015

Historical Sew Monthly: War and Peace

My World War I outfit. I admit, the blouse front is pinned in the photo - I still can't decide if I want to add lace to the placket or not. However, the sleeves, shoulders, sides - everything else, is shown on the bodice. I just need to add a hook and eye to the skirt for that to be completely done as well.

The Challenge: War and Peace

Fabric: The pink of the skirt is cotton twill (Minna at Ikea), the black is black linen from Joanns, the blouse is out of embroidered cotton at joanns.

Pattern: My own! The skirt pattern and an explanation of it is below.

Year: 1915~

Notions: Lace collar, buttons, hook and eye, thread.

How historically accurate is it? They had cotton. They had linen. They had sewing machines. Really, from a visually accurate perspective, it's spot on.

Hours to complete: Maybe 10?

First worn: This Saturday! Better pictures then.

Total cost: The minna fabric was on sale for $3.49 a yard and I got 4 yards of that. I *think* the embroidered cotton was about $10 a yard, on sale, and I only got a yard and a half of that. The black linen was stash but it was a remnant I apparently paid $10 for. So...$38.96? The lace collar was in the stash.

The inspiration for the skirt:

Patterns from 1916
On the lower right hand side, you'll see the tiered side skirt. This fashion plate is from 1916 but this style was popular as early as 1915. I *love* mid teens era styles. I adore those full skirts and blouses. They are just fabulous.

Below is the pattern I used for the skirt.

I know, the above drawing (done on paint!) is terrible, but I wanted to give an idea of what the pattern pieces were. From left to right: The first piece is the front and back. The front is cut on the fold and the back is cut with the selvage down the middle - this makes it easy to make it a back fastening skirt.

The middle two pieces are the sides.  The longer one is the middle tier and the shorter one is the top tier.  The waist for both is the same as the bottom tier (far right), but the overall width is "fatter" than the bottom tier.  This gives the skirt the "puffy" affect that I needed.   The bottom tier:  the bottom 8" are a couple of inches wider than the rest of the piece.   I cut along the dotted line and gathered the piece to the rest of the tier.  This seam is hidden by the middle tier but gives the hem width I needed while still being narrow enough further up to give the puffy affect.

The waistband, not shown, was just a strip of the pink fabric with a double forked edge, and about 2" longer than the corseted waist measurement.   I folded it over, sewed the two points (forks) together, to get a pointed waistband.

The black bands are just the bottom four inches of each of the tiers.  I sewed those along the bottom edge of the wrong side, flipped them, ironed them, and then folded the top edge down, sewing the bands down on the right side of the fabric.

This ended up being a lot of material to sew through.  The cotton twill is pretty heavy duty fabric (I got a blister on my finger just from cutting it out!) and sewing through the three tiers and the side and then adding in the waistband?   Luckily, my sewing machine is awesome and went through all of this like it was butter.

The blouse is a pretty basic pattern. The big thing about the blouse isn't it's shape, it's how I achieved the color of it. Originally, it was a bright white but I really liked the embroidery pattern on the fabric and it's a nice 100% cotton semi-sheer - perfect for spring! The color didn't match a single one of my lace trims - it was just too white. So, I "aged" it using tea. I boiled a pot of tea in my soup pan. I used 8 bags of lipton tea and a bit of salt. Once the tea was dark enough, I turned the stove off, took out the tea bags, and put the fabric in, making sure it was completely submerged. I waited ten minutes, took it out and it was just the right shade. So, I hung it up to dry in the shower and then ironed it once it was completely dry. The color should stay.

As for the whole outfit, I'll probably wear a black belt of some sort around the waist to complete the look.  We'll see Saturday!

Edit: Turns out the event was on Sunday, not Saturday. Still, it was a lot of fun!

One of the photos of Kat, myself, and Judy:

Taken by Kat

I really love this outfit. It was so much fun (and so comfortable!) to wear. Even though I was wearing a corset (I didn't tie it very tight), I felt relaxed in this outfit. Just a nice long twill skirt with a simple blouse...over a corset cover, petticoat, corset, chemise, and drawers. ;-) Oh, and I had the black belt sash as well...and the hat I got at the thrift store. The hat was $6.90 and I added a feather. It came with the roses which matched the skirt perfectly. I was pleased. ;-)

Saturday, April 25, 2015

New Zone Front Dress

Front of Zone Front Dress

Close up of the Zone Front

Side of Dress

Back of Dress

Close up of the piecing

So the last photo is showing where I had to piece the skirt together for this Zone Front style dress because, unfortuantely, I didn't have quite enough fabric.

The full story: The amazing thrift store I go to had this blue and cream cotton for $3.90 for the entire length of it. It ended up being roughly 3 yards although it was hard to tell because it was someone's remnant and they had cut what looked like another dress out of it. I knew I had enough fabric to eek out a dress if I tried.

I used the Pegee of Williamsburg anglaise pattern as a base and worked out from there. I made the back into three piece (center back, two side backs) and had the center back still attached to the skirt back. I used my own sleeve pattern - the same one I created last year for my 18th Century jacket. The front of the pattern I cut out normally for the blue silk satin stomacher part and I flipped it up to created the angle for the zone front out of the cotton.

The bodice is lined in linen but the sleeves are lined in a stripped cotton (which you can see a bit because of the elbow flap).

While sewing the dress, I decided to come up with a new term - Visually accurate. Basically visually accurate pieces are ones that fall into the old SCA 10 foot rule - if it looks accurate from 10 feet away, it's good. It differs from historically accurate as you might be using a sewing machine or the fabric isn't exactly correct for that time period (who doesn't use silk dupioni?) or something else of that nature. If someone of the time period saw you from 10 feet away (sightly over 3 meters away) and wouldn't bat an eyelash about what you were wearing - ie, it would look normal from that distance to them- then it's visually accurate.

I did a lot of the interior seams of this dress on the machine. However, any visible seams (ie, the hem!) are hand sewn. Really, the only things machine sewn are the sleeves, the side skirt seams, the front line of the bodice and...that's it. The back seams? I sewed them using a historical method. I used cotton thread on the cotton dress - the pattern is accurate for the last quarter of the 18th century. Because I used the sewing machine, I'm calling this highly visually accurate.

The petticoat is another matter. It was once a bedspread. I cut a pocket slit, bound that with purple bias tape, cut out the batting from the top 2" of the petticoat, pleated it, attached silk waistbands to the front and back and...instant quilted petticoat! The hem was already bound because it had been the edge of the bedspread. This is more necessary garb low visually accurate. The lavender went well with the blue (much better than the orange!) but none of the materials are accurate. They did have quilted petticoats in the 18th century just not out of poly satin. ;-)

Overally, I'm happy with the dress. I'm going to add buttons down the front - I bought bone roundels to make fabric buttons for the dress. I just didn't have the time yesterday nor the proper materials to make them. I think the petticoat might need some work though. I pleated it wrong- not a big deal for today since both the dress and the cape hid anything. I also don't like the ties I cut out four months ago for it (did I mention the petticoat was a UFO...for the past two years?).

Monday, April 20, 2015

So that I can remember for next time

I've been playing with making up some new recipes for the Spring/Summer.   Tonight, I made this one up and it's delicious as well as pretty healthy.


1 boneless skinless chicken breast with all the fatty stuff cut out
2 heritage carrots (regular carrots would work but I like the purple ones!)
2 stalks of celery
4 or 5 fresh chives
1/2 a lemon
1 tablespoon olive oil
1 tablespoon salt or to taste
1/2 tablespoon of lemon pepper seasoning

I cooked the chicken in the olive oil and fresh lemon juice from said lemon.   The chives were from my yard, the celery was left over from the potato salad I made over the weekend.  The carrots...I almost always have carrots in my fridge because they make a great snack food.   Really, this dish was about using what I had on hand.

I chopped up the carrots, chives, and celery.  Once the chicken was brown on one side, I coated the uncooked side with the lemon pepper, turned it, and added the veggies. I also added the salt at this point. Then, I just waited until it was all cooked.  I served this over a bed of rice.  I had cooked the rice the other day so I just heated it up in the microwave with a soaking wet paper towel over the rice so that it wouldn't dry out in said microwave.  

It's surprisingly good.  I wasn't sure how tasty it would be since I'm not normally a celery fan but this turned out really well.   It has a nice tang to it thanks to the chives and lemon but it's not overpoweringly sour.  

My Second Empire 1890's Dress

I didn't take pictures of the finished Second Empire stays, but here is the pattern:

I drafted it out first and then put it on the dress dummy for some final finishing.  After wearing the stays all day, they do need some small improvements.  One of the biggest ones would be to make the armsyce smaller - it was cutting into my chest around my arms.   Another would be to either make them one inch longer or one inch shorter - where they were, every time I bent over, the bones would cut into my upper belly and that was not fun.   However, overall, they were actually pretty good.  I could move!  I could drive!  Once I fix the really pretty minor issues (shorten the existing ones will fix one issue and maybe adding a patch on either side will fix the other), they will be perfect.

I didn't take any pictures of the dress while I was making it - it was a bit of a rush job since I had been so ill the previous week.   Really, the pattern for the Second Empire dress was easy since I used a modern pattern.  Simplicity 3777  has very similar lines to the 1890's dresses.  I just had to draft a new sleeve and lengthen the skirt.  Easy.   I used bodice pattern C/D for the lining and then added 3 1/2" to the front of that pattern, while drafting out the darts, for the front gathers.  The sleeve is just my normal trapezoid with a bell curve up top except this bell curve went up at least 8" than I normally do - the sleeve was also a bit wider but only by 3", I think.   The lining for the sleeve was a more traditional sleeve shape.

Another thing about the sleeves - in order to keep them "puffy", I added tulle to the inside upper bell curve edge of the sleeve.  It was about 6" wide and ran along the top of the sleeve.  When I gathered it to the sleeve lining, this allowed for something "stiff" but lightweight to help the sleeve keep it's shape.  Horsehair would have been the accurate way to do this but I had tulle on hand.  

Sleeves of doom!!!!!!!!  You can see the pink sleeves and gray wool dress (ie me!) as the only one without a parasol up.  It was wedge at my feet and you might be able to make out the handle of the parasol in this picture. (All photos courtesy of Kat!)

Kat was trying to steal my necklace which is why you see a hand in the photo below. However, you get a pretty good view of the dress. I used pink dupioni silk for the sleeves - which is what I had on hand- and gray wool for the dress. It needs trim, badly, but I'll do that next time. This time, I was in a rush to finish the dress. Thank goodness visible machine sewn hems are perfectly period for this era!

Okay, so in this photo you can really see the sleeves of doom. They are bigger than my head. :-)

This photo is courtesy of Danabren on LJ.

Overall, I'm pleased with the dress. Like I said, it needs trim. Badly. However, that's an easy fix. If you'd like to read about the Second Empire fashions, I have the original sewing plans, part one of Second Empire research, and part two. In those links, you'll see my inspiration for this outfit.

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly 23 Sweet Sips and Potent Potables

This one is probably cheating because although it is a medieval recipe, it's one I've used for a few years now. I make it all the time now because it's that good. I don't bother buying sodas much anymore - I make this syrup called Sekanjibin and add it to some carbonated water (courtesy of my sodastream). The fun thing about Sekanjibin is you can flavor it however you please.

The Challenge: 23. Sweet Sips and Potent Potables April 5 - April 18
Whether it’s hard or soft, we all enjoy a refreshing beverage! Pick a historic beverage to recreate - remember to sip responsibly!

The Recipe: (where did you find it, link to it if possible)Sekanjubin Simple Take a ratl of strong vinegar and mix it with two ratls of sugar, and cook all this until it takes the form of a syrup. Drink an ûqiya of this with three of hot water when fasting: it is beneficial for fevers of jaundice, and calms jaundice and cuts the thirst, since sikanjabîn syrup is beneficial in phlegmatic fevers: make it with six ûqiyas of sour vinegar for a ratl of honey and it is admirable.
...[gap: top third of this page has been cut off]...
... and a ratl of sugar; cook all this until it takes the consistency of syrup. Its benefit is to relax the bowels and cut the thirst and vomiting, and it is beneficial in bilious fevers.

The Date/Year and Region:
13th Century, Andalusia (Southern Spain)

How Did You Make It: (a brief synopsis of the process of creation) First, I gathered my ingredients. Actually, I probably should point out that the above recipe is simply one of many for sekanjibin. According to this website it was first mentioned in the 10th century. I'm told there are other period recipes (in languages I don't even begin to know a word of) that allow for flavorings. Since ginger is a period correct spice, I've added ginger as my flavoring.

The above are my ingredients. Sugar, honey ginger infused balsamic vinegar, and ginger root. I also add water at the end. So my full redaction:

2 cups sugar
1 cup infused vinegar
1 piece of the root (about the size of my thumb) sliced into chunks
1/2 cup water

All you do is boil everything except the water together. I wait until the mixture "doubles" in size and then I take it away from the heat immediately. After stirring it a bit, I put it into the container shown below with the water. The reason for this is because it can be a very gooey syrup and you need it to be something that will easily mix without stirring in water. I then just shove it in the fridge and wait about a half hour before I can have a drink. Although in period you would mix it with water, I normally mix it with carbonated water. I only use a tablespoon or two of the syrup to flavor a large glass of water - put the syrup in first so that the water will easily mix it when poured.

Time to Complete:
15 minutes or so? Not long to have the mixture. It's waiting for it to cool down - an extra half hour- that really takes time.

Total Cost:
Because I love the infused vinegars, it brings up the price a lot. Sugar is maybe $1. Ginger was about the same if not less. The vinegar? $15 a bottle. You can use regular apple vinegar as well - but that tastes best if you mix it with some water that apples were recently boiled in.

How Successful Was It?: (How did it taste? How did it look? Did it turn out like you thought it would?) I can't get anyone else to try it! I've offered and no one else will try it. I love it though.

How Accurate Is It?: (fess up to your modifications and make-dos here) Although ginger isn't in the original recipe, it's a well known medieval spice so I don't think that's too much of a modification. I cooked it on my electric oven.

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Second Empire Style Part Two

Enough on the stays as awesome as they are.  Let's start with the most basic of undies, the chemise.  Yes, there is a specific Empire style chemise!

The Homemaker: An Illustrated Monthly Mag, Volumes 9-10
From 1892.  Although I'm sure a normal chemise would be fine, it's interesting that there were even Empire styled chemises during the Second Empire time period.

I probably should explain the term "Second Empire" as well.  Many people use "Reform" or "Aesthetic" almost interchangeably for this style of dress that I'm looking into.  However, the term "Reform" isn't used as commonly to describe the dress style in period literature. Rather, it's used to describe the change in fashions and the movement towards getting rid of the corset.  The term "Empire" is used to describe the dress style.  Now, that's not to say "Reform" wasn't ever used - just that I only saw it used far more sparingly than the term Empire. 

One of the places I saw the term "Second Empire" mentioned was in Godey's November 1893.

However, because there is "Second Empire", other magazines, namely Harper's Bazar Jan 7, 1893 mentions fashions of the "First Empire" to differentiate the two styles.

The Empire style - typically referred to as reform by most costumers- wasn't regulated to tea gowns.
Harper's Bazar Jan 1893
 Although the scan is of a poor quality, you can easily see the coloration difference between the skirt and the bodice of the Reception gown above.  There were also Wedding gowns:

Homemaker Magazine 1893
1890 Wedding Gown

1894 Wedding Dress

And there were ballgowns:

Harper's Bazar Feb 1893

Basically, no matter the activity, there was an Empire dress for that.  In fact, there is a wonderful article in the Ladies Home Journal from July 1893 on Dressing without a Corset.  It goes into some of the various styles and the usefulness of dress reform.

Hopefully, having established that the dress was indeed meant for everyday wear and not just for lounging around at home and that the dress was a stylish mode in the early 1890's, I'd like to go back to this image:

Delineator Feb 1893

There are three different Empire styles available as patterns on this page.  I actually found an extant dress that is very similar to the pattern on the bottom left:

Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco
The extant dress is made out of puce colored wool with sky blue silk taffeta sleeves and yoke.  Although the sleeves are more stylized than in the pattern and the yoke doesn't have the high collar, the wool part of the dress matches perfectly to the Delineator pattern.   I was really excited to find this because, although the museum doesn't have multiple images up, it does give me an idea of how it might actually have been worn. 

I believe the reason we don't see more examples of extant Second Empire dresses wasn't due to their perceived lack of popularity, but because of what happened about 15 years later when the neo-directorate styles (typically called the "Titanic" styles in the costuming world) came into being.  Take off the sleeves, put new ones shorter ones on, rip out the yoke have a reasonably fashion dress for the late Edwardian, early teens era.  Given the yardage in the skirt of the Second Empire gowns, it's wouldn't be hard to take some of that fabric to create the new sleeves so no one would be able to tell you are just raiding your Mom's closet...or your own closet.

That's not to say there aren't any others - I actually found several including possibilities on my other blog- just that it doesn't seem to be the majority of survivors from this period.  

Next, hopefully, I'll be able to post about my horrible construction techniques to get a semi reasonable pair of Second Empire stays!

Second Empire Style in the 1890's part one

Over the past few days I've done a lot of research on the "Empire" style in the early 1890's.  There is still a ton of research to do, but I thought I'd share what I've discovered so far.

What started me on this track was the fact I did not want to make a bustle gown.  I love the look of a bustle gown.  They are stunning to behold.  However, they style I happen to like is the super crazy takes-way-too-many-hours-of-pain trimmed out styles.  I have some lovely orange silk and bone silk brocade that would make a stunning gown together...but I just have too many other projects right now and can't spend the time to make the dress exactly as I want it to be.  So, for a "simple" Victorian bustle, I saw a few of the seaside bustles and contemplated doing those.

However, I just didn't feel that that really was what I wanted to do either.  I wanted 1890's with stupid big sleeves of enormity and swooping skirts.  I haven't done a period correct 1890's before and figured I could suck it up, wear the generic "bustle era" Strawberry Shortcake corset I made a few years ago under anything 1890's.  Yet, another issue.  The idea of driving two or so hours in a corset just didn't appeal to me.  At all.   Those that have driven in a corset know why.  Those that haven't, try driving with a back brace that won't let you lean back and you have to sit up bone straight the entire two hours.   It's not fun.

Enter in my (Re)discovery of the Empire stays:

I wrote a bit about these the other day.  I've since discovered a couple more styles.

Harper's bazar: Volume XXVI, Number 8             Harper's bazar: Volume XXVI, Number 2

Both of the above are taken from different issues of Harper's Bazar in 1893. I haven't looked into other years yet but both of these tell an interesting story already. First, the Empire corset terminates at the waistline. Even the "health corsets" (or "waists" as they were sometimes called) of the time extended over the hips. Although, there is this extant one that - based on the web archive- is a health corset:

Web Archive Link to Antique Corset Gallery

However, after seeing the Regency corset, I began to doubt that it was an 1875 health corset. On the archived website, it states:
First advertised in 1875, this example is most likely from the late 1870's. A black sateen sanitary corset made by the Warner Bros. Corset Company. The sanitary corset was the created by two brothers who were physicians, I. De Ver Warner and Lucien C. Warner when they became alarmed by the effects a badly fitting corset could have on the health of a woman.

Given that information, I searched for patents by De Ver Warner filed during the 1870's (1871-1880). I found a few:
1878 Corset Patent
1875 Corset Patent
1877 Corset Patent
1877 Corset Patent
1879 Corset Patent

The first thing I noticed was that all the corsets depicted here extend below the natural waistline, unlike the extant black health corset. Also, none of them have buttons. (Sorry, I have a love for button front corsets so it's the first thing I notice!) Noticing differences, I decided to conduct a search on Empire stays from 1885 to 1895 to see what would turn up. Nothing. I tried a ton of different searches and finally found this:

1912 Brassiere Patent

Although some of the shaping is different from the extant black one, I believe that there are enough similarities that the black one is just the predecessor of this brassiere. Mainly, the up and down stays, the length, the shoulder straps, and, most importantly, the rows of elastic in the back.

The more research I did, the more I became convinced that the black extant garment is not a "health corset" but an early example of a brassiere or bust supporter. However, I believe that it's too late in style to be included as part of the "Second Empire" fashion examples for now. I might look up more later but I doubt it's before 1895 and, as I'll show, the Second Empire fashions tend to be from 1892 to 1894.

Friday, April 10, 2015

1890's Sewing Plans

Typically, when you think 1890's undergarments, you think this:

Taken from Vintage Ads
Or something similar.  The good ole Victorian corset.  However, there are examples of "reform" corsets and early bras being worn instead of the tight waist corsets we are used to thinking about.   For example:

This terminates above the natural waistline.   I also love the button front.  

This one is higher up and more "bra" like.   It has adjustable straps, made out of linen, and another fabulous button front.  (Busks and I do not get along.  Ever.)

Lest anyone think that the above are just anomolies and weren't really worn, here is a graphic from the Feb 1893 issue of the Delineartor. 

Pattern 4936 is of "short stays".  The article says this about them:
Wholly practical substitutes for the ordinary long-waisted corsets, which cannot be worn with Empire gowns, are the Empire short stays, that are shaped according to pattern No. 4936, which costs 10d. or 20 cents.

So, no only was a fashion magazine making a pattern for them at the time, they were also suggesting against wearing an ordinary corset with the Empire waist fashions.   Woohoo!  (Although the run on sentence structure makes my eye all twitchy.)

I love the idea of short stays for a couple of reasons.  One, I love Empire waist fashions.  Two, I can drive in short stays for a long period of time.  A corset?   Not so much.  

My plan, right now, is to make a pair of Victorian short stays and then make an 1890's Empire waisted dress.  

For the dress, I have a few inspirational images. 

1892 Wedding Dress

Feb 1893

1892 Afternoon Dress

I'm trying to decide on fabrics right now and only use stash fabric.  I have some lightweight gray wool and some bright pink wool that look really neat together.  However, most of the time it looks like the contrast with 1890's dresses were out of a different material - typically either silk or velvet.  I have a few different silks - red, pink, orange, blue, turquoise- and a few different wools I can play with.   Once I get the short stays done, I'll figure out the dress. 

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly #22

The Challenge:Make It Do or Do Without

The Recipe: (where did you find it, link to it if possible) This is something I've made many times before.

Kidney Beans. Cook the kidney beans in pure water or in good broth; when they are cooked, get finely sliced onions and fry them in a pan with good oil and put these fried onions on top [of the beans] along with pepper, cinnamon and saffron; then let this sit a while on the hot coals; dish it up with good spices on top.

The Date/Year and Region: 15th Century, Italian

How Did You Make It: (a brief synopsis of the process of creation) This is really simple to make - which is why I make it so much. I just open a can of kidney beans, drain em, and fry them in some oil with onions, cinnamon, pepper, saffron, and salt. I put this on top of a bed of rice - this time I made the rice with salt, water, and saffron. It's become something of a comfort food during Lent.

Time to Complete: about 20 minutes because of how long the rice takes to cook.

Total Cost: I always have rice on hand. And saffron. And pepper. And salt. And cinnamon. Kidney beans were only $1.29 a can and the onions were $2.50 a bag. I only used half of one onion. Basically, this is a very cheap dinner.

How Successful Was It?: (How did it taste? How did it look? Did it turn out like you thought it would?) It's really quite good. It's just basic comfort food really.

How Accurate Is It?: (fess up to your modifications and make-dos here) I cooked it on an oven but other than that, there probably isn't much difference.

The reason I chose this one for this challenge (I made this again on Thursday) was for a couple of reasons. It's a Lenten recipe- Lent is all about not having meat, eggs, dairy, or really any animal products except fish. You had to ration what you had and both rice and beans keep well for a long time.

I also wanted to use it because I should have cooked the rice in either almond milk (too sweet for this recipe) or veggie broth (which I didn't have) so I went with plain old water with a bit of salt. They clearly had both in the middle ages so I'm not worried about how accurate the recipe is.

Saturday, April 4, 2015

Easter Dress!

Better and more pictures later!

I used Simplicity 1961 for the pink knit jacket and Simplicity 9103 for the cream knit dress. I used the jacket pattern as is - no changes. I just cut it out of some pink knit I've been wanting for months at Joann's and followed the directions - sort of. I've made up this jacket a couple of times before. It's a nice, 3/4 sleeve knit jacket that works well both for work clothing and with just jeans.

The dress pattern is my favorite modern clothing dress pattern. It's ridiculously simple. I made the sleeveless version and made it shorter than the pattern because I wanted it above the knee. It's only a little over a yard of fabric but the dress is so versatile. I also added lace to the hem.

The lace top is loosely based on the dress pattern. I used it for the armholes and the neckline. However, it goes out at the sides and has a slight handkerchief hem.

I machine stitched everything using the stretch settings on my Singer Heavy Duty machine. It's much slower than the serger but the serger refused to behave...again.